Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes (informational guide)

What is Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes

Non Insulin dependent diabetes is the most common type of diabetes mellitus. It is called adult-onset diabetes as it is typically identified in individuals above 30. But now it is being diagnosed in children too.
In non insulin dependent diabetes, sugar level is increased in the blood due to the resistance of the body
towards insulin

What is insulin?

Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach. As sugar/ glucose level increases in the blood (hyperglycemia), pancreatic cells start to secret insulin.
Insulin promotes the cellular uptake of plasma glucose and utilizes it to convert into energy so the glucose comes to its normal level. In diabetes mellitus type 2, insulin is not secreted by the pancreas.

Symptoms of Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes

1.polyuria (frequent urination)

2.Polyphagia (increased hunger)

3.polydipsia (prolonged dryness of the mouth)
4. Weight loss
5. Blurred vision
6. Fatigue
7. Headache
8. Poor wound healing
9. Frequent infection

Factors increasing the risk of Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes

Weight

Overweight is a risk of causing diabetes mellitus type 2. One must take care of the weight to minimize the chance of DM2.( Diabetes mellitus type 2)

 Age

Chances of occurring diabetes mellitus type 2 are high in people above age 30. It may be due to a decrease in metabolic rate and loss of muscle mass. But nowadays it is also occurring in children.

Life style

An active lifestyle has a low risk of diabetes mellitus 2. Laziness, carelessness of workout and exercise lead to an inactive lifestyle. Morning walks and a healthy lifestyle are beneficial to avoid the chances of DM2.( Diabetes mellitus type 2)

 Family history

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a hereditary disease. If a person has a history of DM2 in his family i.e parents or siblings then he has more chances of it to occur.

 Prediabetes

It is a condition in which a person has a sugar level higher than the normal but not that much to be called diabetes mellitus type 2. Prediabetes often progresses to non-insulin dependent diabetes.

 

Fats distribution

If a person stores more fats at the abdomen he has chances to have diabetes mellitus type 2.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

In women, having polycystic ovarian syndrome characterized by the irregular menstrual cycle and excessive growth of hair and obesity have the risk of diabetes mellitus T2

Gestational diabetes

If a woman develops gestational diabetes during pregnancy then she has a high risk of diabetes mellitus type 2

Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus type 2 is diagnosed by the A1c test which reflects blood glucose level over the past three months.
Fasting plasma glucose test measures the glucose level in blood before 8 hours of having a meal.
Random plasma glucose test measures the glucose level in blood after having a meal
Oral glucose tolerance test is performed before 8 hours of having a meal and 2 hours after
having a glucose-containing drink.

Prevention

1.Healthy lifestyle

A healthy lifestyle can minimize the chances of diabetes mellitus type2. Include vegetables and fruit as a major part of your diet and avoid fatty food. Drink plenty of water to have a healthy body without DMT2

2.Exercise

Overweight is a cause of occurring DMT2. It is necessary to control body weight. Regular exercise and morning walk makes a lifestyle healthy and prevents obesity.

3.Activity

To be active in daily routine and avoiding being sedentary for a long period can also prevent the chances of occurring DMT2

Medication for diabetes mellitus type 2

 Insulin and insulin analog

maybe an initial or adjunctive agent for individuals with T2DM. insulin is administered subcutaneously as IM or IV administrations have their risks. Unit of insulin is adjusted in individuals of T2DM according to physicians’ recommendations.

 Oral and non-insulin agents containing

1 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor
2 Biguanides
3 Thiazolidinediones
4 Sulfonylureas
5 Meglitinides
6 Phenylalanine derivatives