Typical Response Of The Body To Changes In Blood Glucose
Glucose is the simplest form of carbohydrates. It is a monosaccharide. Our food, containing large part of carbohydrates, is digested and absorbed in the form of glucose. After digestion at cellular level, it produces energy in the form of ATP.
Digestion of carbohydrates starts from mouth in the presence of Amylase. It converts carbohydrates into maltose. Final digestion takes place in small intestine where pancreatic juice is secreted by the exocrine tissue of pancreas. It contains amylase (Amylopsin) which converts carbohydrates into glucose.
In intestine, glucose is absorbed and becomes the part of the blood. It reaches the body cells and
produces ATP. The part of glucose which passes through the Liver, converts into glycogen which is an insoluble form of carbohydrates. Whenever there is fluctuation in glucose level in the body, glycogen converts into glucose to produce energy.
Energy is produced by not only glucose but also lipids and protein monomers. But brain cells and nerve cells fulfill the energy requirement via glucose level. Therefore blood-glucose level has importance in our body. High level of glucose is called hyperglycemia which leads to Diabetes Mellitus while low level of glucose is called hypoglycemia.
Pancreas has a vital role for absorption as well as to maintain the level of glucose in the body. Pancreas is a large gland present under stomach in the body. It acts exocrine as well as endocrine gland.
As exocrine gland, it secretes digestive enzymes containing juice, “pancreatic juice”, which contains
amylase. Amylase helps to digest carbohydrates in the form of glucose.
While as Endocrine gland, it secretes variety of hormones which regulates glucose level in the body. This gland produces Glucagon, Insulin and somatostatin to regulate glucose level in the body.
Pancreas secretes insulin in response of glucose when it enters the blood. Glucose affects the red blood cells to carry oxygen and it is done in response to insulin entering the body. Insulin is secreted by the pancreas in response to glucose level therefore it varies in fasting and fed state.
An increase in glucose level stimulates beta cells of pancreas which start to secret insulin. Insulin stimulates adipose tissues and muscle tissues to uptake glucose from the blood. There are also transporters (GLUT) which help glucose to transfer through the fat and muscle cells.
Glucose uptake by the cells from the blood depends upon insulin release. As the glucose is taken by the cells, blood glucose level decreases and rest of it is stored in the form of glycogen.
After several hours when level of glucose falls, alpha cells of pancreas are stimulated and they starts to secret Glucagon. Glucagon has opposite effect from that of insulin.